ESD – Design / Harden Equipment for ESD Immunity (Part II)

Preamble: . As for any organized EMI control, ESD protection consist in anticipating or correcting the unwanted effects of an hostile electromagnetic ambient. Like many EMI threats, ESD manifests through conducted and radiated phenomena, with the latest being often the dominant mode. But there is a unique aspect to ESD, not found in common radiated EMI episodes where the victim box and cables are illuminated by a uniform field. Instead, ESD generates locally a strong field pulse, typically > 1kV/m near the discharge point, dropping quickly as one move away. Therefore, although ESD hardening should be part of a general EMI control, not handled as a separate constraint, some classical EMC solutions may not be sufficient and should be complemented by additional protections.

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Finally, the complete EMC Handbook

Michel Mardiguian . has for many years been an internationally recognized writer and lecturer. Michel’s popular series of EMC-articles in Electronic Environment has also been published on the magazine’s international website with readers from all over the world. Michel Mardiguian has now compiled the large number of articles and course material, for a comprehensive handbook.

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Why electricity kills bearings – new insights

An article in Electronic Environment . 2017/2, is about the fundamental failure mechanisms (capacitive, inductive coupling and frame voltage) that cause EDM (Electric Discharge Machining aka Bearing Currents or Electric Erosion) in bearings. This article expands on the theme and shows why “The Simple Explanation”, The Mathematical Models and the Real World view on EDM differ, both in nature and in practical use. It also adds a couple of new insights that are becoming more and more valid with the widespread use of Frequency Inverters and loads with higher-than-normal capacitance to ground.

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Massive IoT and EMC

Abstract — . The technical development towards the full vision of the Internet of Things (ioT) is expected to reach it´s full potential by the coming 5G wireless technologies. This will open up for so called massive IoT characterized by co-location densities in the order of 200000 devices per km2. This development will affect the area of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in a number of ways and may even be the most challenging issue for the EMC area since it was born for over 100 years ago. In this paper, some of these new challenges are highlighted and discussed. Furthermore, numerical results from some dense co-location scenarios are presented to show examples of interference challenges to be handled.

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EMC in Product Development (Part 3)

The concept phase – EMI risk analysis .  This article is a part of a series of texts that will deal with the EMC challenge in terms of project management and the practical EMC activities at different stages in the project flow.

Different companies all have their own way of describing their project flow, so to keep it simple we will use the labels as given in Figure 1. We can call it a generic project flow. The picture only describes the basic outline of the work packages. These articles will describe the actual practical work we want to do in the project to “make EMC work” in a time- and cost-efficient way. Each part of our series will fill in the details for each part piece by piece.

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ESD – Understand and Test for Compliance (Part I)

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) . is a very common, yet often overlooked problem that can plague electronic equipments in a mysterious way. ESD is like an invisible, mischievous gremlin that come and go un-noticed, until the related failures or malfunctions become apparent. Yet, ESD by its elusive but superfast characteristics and very high frequency spectrum definitely belong to the EMI family. Once understood, the solutions to it are not very different than those for the more classical interference problems, bearing in mind that we will be dealing with a frequency domain up to the GHz, where some EMI solutions are simply not appropriate.

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EMC in Product Development (Part 2)

Setting the EMC requirements . This article is a part of a series of texts that will deal with the EMC challenge in terms of project management and the practical EMC activities at different stages in the project flow. Different companies all have their own way of describing their project flow, so to keep it simple we will use the labels as given in Figure 1. We can call it a generic project flow. The picture only describes the basic outline of the work packages. These articles will describe the actual practical work we want to do in the project to “make EMC work” in a time- and cost-efficient way. Each part of our series will fill in the details for each part piece by piece.

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Troubleshooting EMI (Part II, Susceptibility Problems)

Some simple hints . for identifying and fixing EMI troubles. This second part of our EMI Troubleshooting guidelines is devoted to investigation and cure of EMI susceptibility problems. Since, according to our former article (Ref.1) conducted tests are faster and easier to perform, we will concentrate on these and avoid more complex and expensive radiated susceptibility test set-ups. The first half of this article will address the situation where the equipment at stake is still in the plant or lab, at the end of its development phase or in an early stage of production. The second half will cover the more difficult cases where the faultly equipment is already in service, installed at some customer site.

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EMC in Product Development (Part 1)

What is the electromagnetic environment? The EMC part of the prestudy .
This article is a part of a series of texts that will deal with the EMC challenge in terms of project management and the practical EMC activities at different stages in the project flow.

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The Ten Commandments for EMC, part 6

One of the most important . measures to achieve good EMC characteristics is to bond all metallic (conducting) structures together with many wide connections. Connect metal to metal by as large area as possible, with good surface conductivity. These joined parts form a conductive equipotential structure, that act as a reference plane or ground for all electrical and electronic circuit in its vicinity. In practice, the apparatus body and the metal casing, forms this reference plane. In most cases, the ground planes in PCBs must also be connected to the reference plane to achieve the desired EMC properties.

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